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Aunt Pythia’s advice

Readers! Dear readers! Aunt Pythia lovers everywhere should stop what they’re doing and watch this trailer immediately, all about the female orgasm:

It looks adorable, n’est-ce pas? Aunt Pythia planning to watch it in its entirety very soon. Stand by for a review.

But enough dilly dallying, readers, Aunt Pythia has a serious job to attend to! If you enjoy her intemperate, unreasonable ramblings, then before you go,

ask Aunt Pythia any question at all at the bottom of the page!

By the way, if you don’t know what the hell Aunt Pythia is talking about, go here for past advice columns and here for an explanation of the name Pythia.

——

Dear Aunt Pythia,

We had two interactions recently with the police and my wife disagrees with me if this is an example of “driving while white”, so I wanted your opinion of how this would have gone if I was African-American.

1) My 18-year old son was driving our Tesla on the PA Turnpike and was pulled over by the police. The officer walked over to the car and complemented him “Nice car.” And walked away without giving any other reason for stopping him. Do people actually get stopped to get compliments?

2) I was driving through Baltimore and looking for a rest stop. I took an exit and realizing that it was simply leading to another highway, I pulled off onto the very ample shoulder and then walked into the woods to pee. When I turned to return, I saw two Baltimore police officers with their hands on their holsters. They asked me what I was doing in the woods. When I told them they gave me a warning, saying I should “keep an empty bottle in the car for emergencies” and let me go on my way. Did I do something wrong? What did they think I was doing?

Why He Is Traffic-Stop Exempt

Dear WHITE,

Well, I’m also white, so I don’t have first hand knowledge of the counterfactual, but I’m happy to think about it with you.

I don’t know why anyone would be stopped for no reason at all, so let’s think about why your son was pulled over. I’ll wager it was because he was too obviously young to afford a Tesla, and the cop was wondering if he had stolen it. If that is the case, then the fact that your son didn’t appear overly nervous once he was stopped could have contributed to his not getting harassed further. On the other hand, imagine how it might have gone another way for the son of a black Tesla owner. The very act of being pulled over and confronted by a cop with suspicions might have freaked him out, not because he was guilty, but because he was aware of how cops treat young black men.

Similarly, why did those guys care about you peeing in the woods? I don’t know, but their hands on their holsters tells us they were ready for something violent. Again, the counterfactual is always missing, but then again unless you’ve been living under a rock it’s hard to rule out something ridiculous happening in both cases.

In summary, I can easily imagine how this could have gone differently for both you and your son had you been black, but I’m not sure that means there is something truly out of the ordinary going on in either case. That’s the thing with discrimination, it’s statistical rather than deterministic.

To answer your original question, I’d say that instead of thinking about specific events being white privilege events, think overall about how often your interactions with power are pleasant or unpleasant; after all, you have more than two data points. Personally I have gotten out of illegal driving maneuvers by crying, having kids in the car, and even once just because I had kid car seats in my car. I am most definitely a white woman and it has worked for me. Of course, those police might just have been nice to everyone; again, it’s statistics, and I can’t prove my white privilege, but I don’t doubt it one bit either.

Every now and then the situation is more clear cut. I was walking up Broadway the other day and I walked by a scene where a white man was getting a parking ticket from an black female cop. He was very upset about the ticket, and was swearing at the top of his lungs, stuff like, “This is complete shit! You’re an asshole! Fuck this ticket! I was only gone for a few minutes!” The cop said absolutely nothing while she wrote the ticket. She remained calm, and while I didn’t stay until the end, I presume she simply handed the guy his ticket at the end. I kicked myself afterwards for not whipping out my phone and recording it, but I do think it was absolutely inconceivable that if the roles had been reversed, and it had been a white male cop giving a ticket to a black women, I would have seen her acting in the same way.

Aunt Pythia

——

Hi Aunt Pythia,

A while ago, someone sent you a music video for “Dangerous” and you didn’t much like it. I just ran across this alternative video for the same song, and I think it meshes with your aesthetic much better…

But It’s Good! Don’t Argue, Try Again

Dear BIGDATA,

Very clever, I like it!

Aunt Pythia

——

Aunt Pythia,

Bad answer to the anal sex guy. I happen to like it myself, but seriously how many times does his girlfriend have to say “no” to having his dick in her ass before he listens? Your answer should have been more like “you first with a dildo.” Their tune changes very quickly when it’s their asshole being probed.

Answer

Dear Answer,

First of all, he might have been fine with a dildo up his butt; some people are just kinkier than other people. Second of all, I don’t think it’s great marital advice to tell your spouse to “shut up about their sexuality already.” That might work fine at work, or with an acquaintance, but with a spouse you’re really in it for the long haul and things could go badly if that’s your attitude. I stand by my answer.

Aunt Pythia

——

Hi Aunt Pythia,

Do you have any friends who just suck your positive energy away? I do. This friend always has something to complain about her life, with so much drama. She is a really dear friend too, so I feel quite strong sadness with her every problem in life. But when someone is just dumping their problems on you (I know she is more like sharing them, but still), how sustainable that relationship is? It is horrible to abandon people when they need you, but is there a good time/reason/way to restructure your friendship with someone?

Friendship Rest In ENjoyable Distance

Dear FRIEND,

I feel your pain. Or actually, no I don’t. But I do acknowledge your pain.

And therein lies the difference, and my advice. Make time for your friend to tell you about her problems, but don’t make them your problems. Listen to her, have compassion, smile and give her love and support, but don’t get yourself empathetic to the point of suffering yourself, because that’s not helpful to either of you. That’s the first piece of advice I have for you.

Second: indicate to your friend that your conversations are somewhat lopsided, and you’d like to discuss happier things as well as struggles, because that way it is more fun and forward thinking. Tell her three things you are grateful for from the past week, and make it part of your relationship that you talk about more than her problems.

Another possibility, if that seems unlikely or too difficult to handle: make your meetings about something, rather than straight up bitch sessions or coffee. Go to Magic Mike XXL with her, or take a walk, or take her to the yarn store, or get her engaged in a project of some kind that she would like. Make the meetings about that project and the future.

If all else fails – and do try a couple of the above first – give yourself a break and tell her you are busy when it just seems like too much work to listen to her. Wean her off of you gradually, and she will find other people to talk to.

Good luck!

Aunt Pythia

p.s. One piece of advice I didn’t give you is to give her advice on her problems. I do this by nature, so I assume you’ve already tried it, but the truth is I don’t think it helps very much. I mean, it helps me think I’m being a good friend, of course, but my experience is that people who talk a lot about their problems don’t want advice to fix them. Of course, some people do ask advice and take it, but they are typically people who talk only infrequently about their problems. And also, giving advice extends the time that you spend talking about her problems instead of something else.

——

Readers? Aunt Pythia loves you so much. She wants to hear from you, and then tell you what for in a most indulgent way. Will you help her do that?

Please, pleeeeease ask her a question. She will take it seriously and answer it if she can.

Click here for a form for later or just do it now:

Categories: Uncategorized

The manufactured trucker shortage

Have you been reading about the shortage of workers in the trucking industry? Have you wondered why, in this crappy economy, they haven’t been able to find more workers? Here’s an excerpt from recent Wall Street Journal’s coverage of this worker shortage crisis:

Operators across the country are short 30,000 long-distance drivers, the American Trucking Associations estimates. The group projects the shortage could top 200,000 in the next decade. Average annual pay for long-distance drivers was $49,540 in 2013, according to ATA estimates. Hiring and wages in truck transportation have inched up this year, according to the Labor Department.

I’ve got a theory. Here’s what it is: they trucking companies aren’t paying enough. Funny how demand and supply and efficient markets go out the window when there’s a political point being served, though: Congress is considering passing a law that would allow 18-year-olds to be long-haul truckers. A terrible idea considering how younger drivers are much more dangerous.

Of course, $50K isn’t nothing. But on the other hand, truckers have to be trained, competent, and regularly spend many days on the road. Moreover, the current surveillance technology has severely degraded their quality of life, which I learned by reading about Karen Levy’s work on the industry. Also, new truckers probably make substantially less than $50K when they start.

Partly the surveillance arose from the very real risk of truckers driving too much per day – it was an attempt to make sure truckers were driving safely. But since the technology has been installed in many large-company fleets, the companies have used it to essentially harass their drivers, telling them when break is over and so on. This has worked, in the sense that larger companies with more surveillance have managed to lower costs, pushing out smaller and individual truckers. And that means that truckers who used to own their own business now reluctantly work for huge companies.

For an industry that has historically prided itself for its independent nature, this change does not sit well with drivers. The turnover rates are staggering:

turnovertruckers

When you make your workers lives worse, and you don’t compensate them with cash money to make up for it, you find your workers quitting. That’s what’s happening here.

Conclusion: we either need to improve truckers’ work experiences or pay them more. There’s no worker shortage, there’s simply an unwillingness, on the employers’ side, to face up to the facts.

Categories: Uncategorized

Women in Tech: pipeline versus retention

There’s a provocative article over at Medium.com about women in tech. As the article points out in about a thousand ways, it’s not just a pipeline problem, it’s an environmental problem.

Fellow math nerd Rachel Thomas, the author, points out a bunch of sad facts about working in tech. For example, how VC’s prefer men, how men’s applications are preferred in hiring processes, how women get punished for negotiating and for being pushy whereas men get rewarded.

Having worked in tech myself, I can say the maternity policies are crap, the long hours are unreasonable, and the frat-like atmosphere exhausts me. No, I do not want to play ping pong during my lunch hour.

But having said that, I don’t think I’ve experienced the worst of it; I was already a grownup, with a Ph.D., when I entered this stuff, and as such I’m allowed to have stronger opinions than the average engineer.

The most interesting issue brought up in Rachel’s piece is the retention rates for those qualified for tech jobs. Unfortunately, both Rachel’s piece and this related NPR piece which Rachel points to only discuss the statistics for women retention, namely that about 40% of women leave engineering after they get degrees in engineering (and I think Rachel’s piece actually gets that stat wrong).

Presumably, that’s higher than men, but how much higher? And do women leave jobs more often in general, or is this a tech-related retention problem? What’s the breakdown on reasons why women and men leave? Can we address them individually?

These are important questions, and if we can figure out what is happening, we should. I’ve been thinking about how to grow the pipeline for girls and women in STEM subjects at the high school and college level, but it would be ridiculous to spend an enormous amount of time on that if, once the get a job, that job proves unattractive.

Update: In the subtitle of the piece, it says 17% of men end up leaving the field compared to 42% of women, with a link to this 100 page pdf (hat tip Ewout ter Haar). I still want to know how many women leave other fields to give more context, but it’s a good start.

Categories: Uncategorized

Academic publishing versus retraction, or: how much Twitter knows about the market

Papers have mistakes all the time. If they’re smallish mistakes that don’t threaten the main work, often times the author is told to write an erratum, which the academic journal publishes in a subsequent volume. Other times the problems are more substantial, and might deserve the paper to be retracted altogether.

For example, if a paper is found to have fraudulent data, retraction is called for. Even when the claims made are outlandish, implausible, and unreproducible, but the authors hadn’t been intentionally fraudulent, there still may be just cause to seriously question their claims and retract. On the other hand, if a paper that was once deemed cutting edge and new is, in retrospect, not very innovative at all, then typically no retraction is called for; the paper is simply ignored. When exactly retraction happens, and how, probably depends on the journal, and even the editor.

Today I want to tell you a story in which that process seems to have gone badly wrong.

Elsevier, the academic publishing giant owns a journal called the Journal of Computational Science (JoCS) which published a paper called Twitter Mood Predicts the Stock Market (preprint version here) back in 2010. It got a lot of press, and even more, and according to Google Scholar has been cited 1300 times. According to media reports, the paper showed that Twitter, when it was enhanced with emotional tags, was able to predict the Dow Jones Industrial Average with an accuracy of 87% (whatever that means).

Full disclosure: I haven’t read the paper, but even so I don’t believe the results of this paper. People in hedge funds have been trolling for signal in all sorts of news and social media text-based ways for a long while, and there’s simply no way that they would have ignored such a strong signal all the way into 2008. If it was real, they wouldn’t have ignored it, and it would have faded. But I also don’t think it’s so real either.

Anyway, that’s my personal intuition about this, but I could be wrong! That’s what’s cool about academic publishing, right? That we could just be super wrong and people can say what they think and then we get to have this open conversation?

Well, sometimes. What actually happened here is that a bunch of people tried to replicate these results, which was harder because suddenly Twitter started charging lots of money for their data, and a hedge fund also tried the Twitter strategy that was similar to the one outlined in the paper, but everyone lost money*.

After a while, one of these frustrated would-be traders, who we will call LW, decides to write a letter to the editor complaining about the original paper. He even blogged about his letter here. In his letter he had two complaints. First, that the results were consistent with datamining, which is to say that there’s statistical evidence the authors cherry picked their data. Second, that if the results were true, they would violate the “Efficient Market Hypothesis,” and would surprise a bunch of traders with many decades of experience.

So far, so good. A paper is published, people are complaining that the results are wrong or extremely implausible. This is what academic publishing is for.

Here’s what happens next. The editor sends out the letter to reviewers. Two out of 3 of the reviewers respond, and I’ve got a copy their responses. The first reviewer is enthusiastic about doing something – although whether that means retracting the Twitter paper or publishing the complaint letter in the “Letter To The Editor” section is not clear – and uses the phrase “The original paper’s performance claims are convincingly shown to be severely exaggerated.” That first reviewer has minor requests for modifications.

The second reviewer is less enthusiastic but still thinks there is merit to the complaint letter. The second reviewer is dubious as to whether the original article should be withdrawn, but is clearly also skeptical of the stated claims. Finally, the second reviewer suggests that the original authors should be given a chance to respond before their article is retracted.

At this point, the editor writes to the complaint letter writer LW and says, you need to modify your letter, at which time I’ll “reconsider my decision.” The editor doesn’t say whether that decision is to retract the paper or to publish the letter.

So far, still so good. But here’s where things get very weird. After modifying the letter, LW sends it back to the editor, who soon comes back with another review, and importantly, a decision not to take further action. Here are some important facts:

  1. The new review is scathing, passionate, and very long. Look at it here.
  2. The new review has a name on it – possibly left there by accident – it’s the author of the original paper!
  3. Perhaps this was intentional? Did the editor want to give the original author a chance to defend his work?
  4. In the editor’s letter, he states “Reviewers’ comments on your work have now been received.  You will see that they are advising against publication of your work.  Therefore I must reject it.”
  5. The way that was phrased, it doesn’t sound like the editor was acknowledging that this was not an unbiased reviewer, but was in fact one of the original authors.
  6. In any case, before the final reviewer weighed in, it looked like the reviewers had been suggesting publication of the letter at the very least, possibly with the chance for another reaction letter from the author. So this author’s review seems to have been the deciding vote.
  7. You can read more about the details here, on the complaining letter writer’s blog.

What are the standards for this kind of thing? I’m not sure, but I’m pretty certain that asking the original author to be the deciding vote on whether a paper gets retracted isn’t – or should not be – standard practice.

To be clear, I think it makes sense to allow the author to respond to the complaints, but not at this point in the process. Instead, the decision of whether to publish the letter should have been made, with the help of outside reviewers, and if it was decided to publish the letter, the original author should have been given a chance to compose a rebuttal to be published side by side with the complaint.

Also to be clear, I’m not incredibly sympathetic with someone trying to make money off of a published algorithm and then getting pissed when they lose money instead. I’m willing to admit that more than one of these parties is biased. But I do think that the process over at Elsevier’s Journal of Computational Sciences needs auditing.

* Or at least the ones that are talking. Maybe other traders are raking it in but aren’t talking?

Categories: Uncategorized

Aunt Pythia’s advice

Dear readers,

Do you ever wake up not knowing what you want to do when you grow up? And then you realize you’re far too old to feel that way? Well, that’s the way Aunt Pythia feels this morning. She’s in no position to give anyone advice.

And yet. And yet, it’s fun to give people advice! So here goes. Afterwards she’s planning to whip up a batch of delicious “Identity Crisis Crepes” to cheer herself up a bit. They’re going to look like this:

Identity Crisis Crepes have extra nutella.

Identity Crisis Crepes have extra nutella.

Are you addicted to carbs like Aunt Pythia? Do you wish to demonstrate solidarity to the cause? If so, before you go,

ask Aunt Pythia any question at all at the bottom of the page!

By the way, if you don’t know what the hell Aunt Pythia is talking about, go here for past advice columns and here for an explanation of the name Pythia.

——

Dear Aunt Pythia,

A bit lazy to sugarcoat this. I’ve noticed that your personal history/internal biases come out very strongly on some topics and result in irrational/illogical conclusions/actions including banning challenges to your logic.

Have you noticed this yourself? Do you care? If you do care – how would you (do you try to?) address this issue (which I assume every single person suffers from)?

Curious About Rational Exchange

Dear CARE,

Why, no, I hadn’t noticed! Isn’t that why they’re called internal biases? If you’d like to point out specific examples, we can discuss further.

Come to think of it, there are certain things I’m happily opinionated and even stubborn about, but that’s what it means to have a personality, isn’t it? And isn’t that why people ask an advice columnist her opinion? Because the other person is bound to have an opinion?

Of course, one is free to ignore someone else’s opinion, even if it comes from a blogger. But I wouldn’t advise it (har har)!

Aunt Pythia

——

Dear Aunt Pythia:

My work history includes math, data, operations and government analyst jobs, and direct service work. I love collaborating and sharing ideas but I find myself frustrated at a lot of the shitty attitudes that are moving into this space now that its “hot”. I loved your four political camps of big data post and felt like it was one of the few things I’ve come across that addressed this thing I am trying to get my head around.

My problems are twofold:

(1) Not punching someone in the face when they tell me they want to “hack poverty” or any number of other things that speak to a critical lack of familiarity with the context of public interest or work for social good.

(2) Feeling left behind in the job race and shut out of the bigger conversation. I’ve been doing solid research and policy work on issues I care about for quite some time and I hate the idea that the even the president (given his community organizing background) is touting corporate tech as the place to find talent to help build data capacity for the govermment. How do I get my invite to the big kids table?

For now my plan is to keep on keeping on putting data to use in communities I care about and helping community based organizations build capacity around data use and service delivery but I need some help planning ahead.

Yours Truly,

BITCHY?

p.s. Sorry there’s not a sex piece to this!

Dear BITCHY,

I feel you! How about you email me (address available on my “About page” and tell me what you’re working on, why it’s important, and then we can scheme on how to get more publicity for you. I agree that there is far too much absolute bullshit out there, and I’d like to help by promoting substantial work.

Also, one thing about the four political camps. There should have been five, I left out the academic camp which consists of people who genuinely want to make progress on stuff like medicine research and are constantly frustrated by HIPAA laws that protect privacy. Take a look at Daniel Barth-Jones’s work for a great example of this perspective.

Love,

Aunt Pythia

p.s. Nobody’s perfect!

——

Dear Aunt Pythia,

What the…

Google Chrome Listening In To Your Room Shows The Importance Of Privacy Defense In Depth

…is this for real?

Overheard, In California

Dear Overheard,

Well, I know it’s for real, because my son showed me how to use the “OK, Google” feature on his MacBook. But in order to use it, you have to activate it in your Google Chrome settings (or at least that’s what they claim!).

As for how creepy this is, it really depends on how you think about it. I mean, Siri listens too, right? Is that creepy? I think it depends on how much we trust Google and Apple. And the answer is: a fuck ton. We let Google read all our emails already, don’t forget.

As far as I know, voice transcribing still doesn’t work very well compared to actually have the text of email. So I guess if I had to list the creepy stuff in order, I’d start with gmail.

Aunt Pythia

——

Hi Aunt Pythia!

Here is my probably oh-so-familiar story. I’m a grad student in pure math, looking to get out and interested in data journalism. I’ve looked through your notes from the Lede program, and think that working at ProPublica would be AMAZING (though likely a pipe dream).

Beyond material at the level of AP exams, I have no experience in statistics, programming, nor journalism. However, I think reporting stories stemming from statistical analyses or making interactive news applications for readers to explore data themselves would be really cool. For someone in my position with these goals, would you make some suggestions for skills to pick up, people to talk to or emulate, workshops or informational events to attend?

(Addendum/Clarification to the question: Searching the web for “data journalism” and its variants, I find programs and resources for journalists to bulk up their data-science skills or calls for programmers to get involved with news agencies. However, what concrete suggestions would you give to someone starting from scratch who wants to break into this field? I am somewhat more interested in analyzing and interpreting data than in making graphics.)

Thank you in advance!

News Enformer Wanna Be

p.s. You should check out Amanda Cox’s work and talks if you haven’t!

Dear NEW B,

I happen to have some good news for you. Scott Klein of ProPublica came to the Lede Program and told us he hires people based on their webpage projects. If they are cool, innovative, and newsworthy, then he is interested. This is somewhat different from other editors who depend on your ability to get your work published by mainstream news outlets.

So in other words, I suggest you create an online portfolio of work that you think is super interesting and newsworthy, and then you start applying for jobs. To do this, you’ll need to learn statistics and computer programming, but I’d suggest starting with the project and then picking up skills you need to do it. Steal ideas from various online syllabi and such, and feel free to enroll in an actual program or do self-study. Go to hackathons and learn quick and dirty skills.

It’s a long-term plan (or at least not a short-term one), and you might not get a job at ProPublica, which I agree is a dreamy kind of dream, but you might well get another great job, and in any case you’ll learn a lot. Also definitely collaborate with journalists starting now – many great freelance journalists already have great stories and would love to work with mathy/ computer people. Go to a local journalism school and introduce yourself.

Aunt Pythia

p.s. Amanda Cox kicks ass!

——

People, people! Aunt Pythia loves you so much. And she knows that you love her. She feels the love. She really really does.

Well, here’s your chance to spread your Aunt Pythia love to the world! Please ask her a question. She will take it seriously and answer it if she can.

Click here for a form or just do it now:

Categories: Uncategorized

Gender and racial achievement gaps in math

I spent the morning watching this one hour lecture by David Kung, who has been studying the gender and racial achievement gaps in mathematics. Interesting stuff, with historical perspective – math has a sad history – and a call for the end to passive lecturing and much more:

Watch it if you have time. You can skip to 7:20 to start.

Categories: Uncategorized

Greek debt and German banks

Are you fascinated by the “debt as moral weight” arguments you see being tossed around and viciously debated over in Germany and Greece nowadays? It seems like the moral debate has superseded the economic reality of the situation. Even the IMF has declared the current Greek deal untenable, but that hasn’t seemed to interfere with the actual negotiations.

What gives? Many point to history to explain this. Besides the whole Nazi thing, or maybe exactly because of it, the Greeks keep reminding the Germans that they (and others) forgave half of existing German debt after World War II, with the1953 London Debt Agreement. The Germans have responded vehemently that such ancient history is irrelevant, and that the Greeks are a bunch of lazy olive-eating tax avoiders. It’s a dirty fight, and getting dirtier every week.

I maintain we don’t have to examine the history of 60 years ago to understand at least some of the moral anxiety. Instead we should look a mere 7 years ago, at the enormous German bailout of their own banks, which had invested quite recklessly in all sorts of the most risky financial instruments and, most relevantly, Greek bonds.

Start with the basic facts. German and French banks invested very heavily in Greek bonds, partly because they were allowed by European Basel “risk regulation” laws to set the risk of those Greek bonds at zero, and partly because they were just investing in anything and everything with a relatively high yield. Since Greek bonds were at a higher yield than other government bonds that maybe deserved the “zero risk” designation more, they naturally bought an asston of those.

[Side note: whenever there’s a market with a spectrum of products, the ones with the biggest yield for a given risk profile will be snatched up the fastest, because people want to maximize profits. We’ve seen that this almost always is a bad thing and creates bubbles very quickly. But it’s also the reason people are constantly inventing new products that hide risk. In this case they didn’t need to “invent” anything, because it was a political decision to designate Greek bonds at zero risk.]

There are two ways to look at this story from a morality standpoint. One is that, no matter who owns this debt now, the Greek government is on the hook for borrowing it and needs to figure out how to pay it back. From this point of view it was a mistake of the Greeks to issue too much debt and to spend it unwisely, while not cracking down on tax avoiders.

The other way to look at it is that, German banks should have known better to buy this debt in the first place. After all, it’s a free market, and nobody forces you to buy things, and after all if there really were no risk at all on it there would also be no yield (beyond inflation). But the very reason Greek bonds had yield was because the market was differentiating it from German bonds. From this point of view it was a mistake of the German bankers.

Either way, when the Germans bailed out their banks, they took what was a bank problem and made it into a taxpayer problem.

Have I oversimplified? I’ll also admit that, after that whole bailout went down, a series of “Greek bailouts,” all of which were clearly insufficient, made the European governments even more involved, and the Greeks owed way more on paper to the European taxpayers, which layered on the debts while destroying the Greek economy. But most of those bailouts were simply loans which were used to pay back the original loans. Put another way, the Greeks might not have needed bailing out if the original Greek bonds had been refused by risk-averse bankers in the first place.

This is not to suggest that there was perfect planning going on by the previous Greek governments. But I do think that, if we’re looking for who deserves blame in this story, we might want to circle back to the German bankers who couldn’t resist subprime mortgages and Greek bonds back in the early 2000’s.

Categories: Uncategorized
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