Creepy model watch
I really feel like I can’t keep up with all of the creepy models coming out and the news articles about them, so I think I’ll just start making a list. I would appreciate readers adding to my list in the comment section. I think I’ll move this to a separate page on my blog if it comes out nice.
- I recently blogged about a model that predicts student success in for-profit institutions, which I claim is really mostly about student debt and default,
- but here’s a model which actually goes ahead and predicts default directly, it’s a new payday-like loan model. Oh good, because the old payday models didn’t make enough money or something.
- Of course there’s the teacher value-added model which I’ve blogged about multiple times, most recently here. And here’s a paper I’d like everyone to read before they listen to anyone argue one way or the other about the model (h/t Joshua Batson). The abstract is stunning: Recently, educational researchers and practitioners have turned to value-added models to evaluate teacher performance. Although value-added estimates depend on the assessment used to measure student achievement, the importance of outcome selection has received scant attention in the literature. Using data from a large, urban school district, I examine whether value-added estimates from three separate reading achievement tests provide similar answers about teacher performance. I find moderate-sized rank correlations, ranging from 0.15 to 0.58, between the estimates derived from different tests. Although the tests vary to some degree in content, scaling, and sample of students, these factors do not explain the differences in teacher effects. Instead, test timing and measurement error contribute substantially to the instability of value-added estimates across tests. Just in case that didn’t come through, they are saying that the results of the teacher value-added test scores are very very noisy.
- That reminds me, credit scoring models are old but very very creepy, wouldn’t you agree? What’s in them that they want to conceal them?
- Did you read about how Target predicts pregnancy? Extremely creepy.
- I’m actually divided about whether it’s the creepiest though, because I think the sheer enormity of information that Facebook collects about us is the most depressing thing of all.
Before I became a modeler, I wasn’t personally offended by the idea that people could use my information. I thought, I’ve got nothing to hide, and in fact maybe it will make my life easier and more efficient for the machine to know me and my habits.
But here’s how I think now that I’m a modeler and I see how this stuff gets made and I see how it gets applied. That we are each giving up our data, and it’s so easy to do we don’t think about it, and it’s being used to funnel people into success or failure in a feedback loop. And the modelers, the people responsible for creating these things and implementing them, are always already the successes, they are educated and are given good terms on their credit cards and mortgages because they have a nifty high tech job. So the makers get to think of how much easier and more convenient their lives are now that the models see how dependable they are as consumers.
But when there are funnels, there’s always someone who gets funneled down.
Think about how it works with insurance. The idea of insurance is to pool people so that when one person gets sick, the medical costs for that person are paid from the common fund. Everyone pays a bit so it doesn’t break the bank.
But if we have really good information, we begin to see how likely people are to get sick. So we can stratify the pool. Since I almost never get sick, and when I do it’s just strep throat, I get put into a very nice pool with other people who never get sick, and we pay very very little and it works out great for us. But other people have worse luck of the DNA draw and they get put into the “pretty sick” pool and their premium gets bigger as their pool gets sicker until they are really sick and the premium is actually unaffordable. We are left with a system where the people who need insurance the most can’t be part of the system anymore. Too much information ruins the whole idea of insurance and pooled risk.
I think modern modeling is analogous. When people offer deals, they can first check to see if the people they are offering deals are guaranteed to pay back everything. In other words, the businesses (understandably) want to make very certain they are going to profit from each and every customer, and they are getting more and more able to do this. That’s great for customers with perfect credit scores, and it makes it easier for people with perfect credit scores to keep their perfect credit scores, because they are getting the best deals.
But for people with bad credit scores, they get the rottenest deals, which makes a larger and larger percentage of their takehome pay (if they even get a job considering their credit scores) go towards fees and high interest rates. This of course creates an environment in which it’s difficult to improve their credit score- so they default and their credit score gets worse instead of better.
So there you have it, a negative feedback loop and a death spiral of modeling.